ABSTRACT: Interpreting the impedance response of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is significantly more challenging than for most other photovoltaics. This is for a variety of reasons, of which the most significant are the mixed ionic-electronic conduction properties of metal halide perovskites and the difficulty in fabricating stable, and reproducible, devices. Experimental studies, conducted on a variety of PSCs, produce a variety of impedance spectra shapes. However, they all possess common features, the most noteworthy of which is that they have at least two features, at high and low frequency, with different characteristic responses to temperature, illumination and electrical bias. The impedance response has commonly been analyzed in terms of sophisticated equivalent circuits that can be hard to relate to the underlying physics and which complicates the extraction of efficiency-determining parameters. In this paper we show that, by a combination of experiment and drift-diffusion (DD) modelling of the ion and charge carrier transport and recombination within the cell, the main features of common impedance spectra are well reproduced by the DD simulation. Based on this comparison, we show that the high frequency response contains all the key information relating to the steady-state performance of a PSC, i.e. it is a signature of the recombination mechanisms and provides a measure of charge collection efficiency. Moreover, steady-state performance is significantly affected by the distribution of mobile ionic charge within the perovskite layer. Comparison between the electrical properties of different devices should therefore be made using high frequency impedance measurements performed in the steady-state voltage regime in which the cell is expected to operate.
Antonio Riquelme, Laurence J. Bennett, Nicola E. Courtier, Matthew J. Wolf, Lidia Contreras-Bernal, Alison B. Walker, Giles Richardson and Juan A. Anta
Nanoscale, 2020, 12, 17385–17398. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0NR03058A